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How to design a Battery Management System? Eaton BMS Solution Recommend

Time:2023-11-20   Author:as_beam   Browse:

From compact batteries in small electric toothbrushes to large-capacity batteries and supercapacitors for electric cars, critical backup power for businesses, and large-scale batteries and supercapacitors for renewable energy sources and grid energy, battery technology not only brings convenience to people's lives but is also reshaping the energy landscape, thereby driving the growth of the Battery Management System (BMS) market.


The Battery Management System acts as the steward of battery systems, intelligently managing circuits based on different battery unit parameters and actual requirements. It shoulders the responsibility of protecting all "family members" within the entire battery system, optimizing battery performance, and ensuring system safety and efficiency.

Eaton BMS.jpg


Core Functions of the Battery Management System


Battery Monitoring and State Evaluation with precise data handling


  • Real-time monitoring of individual battery states and responses

  • Monitoring the system's voltage, current, temperature, and potential unusual events in the surroundings

  • Assessing battery state of charge (SOC), state of energy (SOE), state of health (SOH), and state of power (SOP)

  • Estimating current and temperature, crucial data support for battery operation, thermal management, and health monitoring

  • Battery Protection to Prolong Lifespan


Balancing technology to equalize voltage, regulate current, dynamically manage batteries and the entire battery pack/system, extending lifespan


  • Automatically disconnecting battery from load and power sources in events like thermal runaway, overvoltage, or overcurrent

  • Alerting in case of faults and transmitting data to the central computer for informed decision-making

  • Protecting both the battery and the workforce

  • Eaton BMS Battery Management System Solutions


Eaton's electronic components offer solutions for battery management in various applications such as industrial, automotive, cloud computing, and more, controlling, managing, and optimizing battery energy. For instance, customers can select products with specific voltage and current parameters in the same position based on their applications, as illustrated in the simplified BMS function module diagram below.


Eaton's Full Electronic Components Product Line


Supporting various applications under different BMS structures


Single BMS Topology – Suitable for a limited number of battery management


The single BMS topology can directly control all batteries, ensuring their balance and optimal performance, providing an excellent solution for applications with a limited number of batteries such as power tools, small UPS systems, and laptops.


Taking laptops as an example, their demand for compact, high-performance, low-power, and high-precision electronic components continues to rise. For battery thermal management and charge-discharge management needs, Eaton's NTC thermistors with radial, axial, and ring terminal enclosures are available, offering epoxy and glass coating options, resistance values from 1 kΩ to 470 kΩ, with rapid thermal response. Fast-acting fuse designs are compact, respond quickly, have high surge capabilities, ensuring circuit safety.


Multiple BMS Topology – Efficiently manages numerous batteries


In a multiple BMS topology, each BMS can control multiple batteries simultaneously, transmitting information to the main BMS, acting as a data collection point. The main BMS is responsible for transferring this data to the central computer for centralized monitoring and control. This topology is widely used in applications with multiple batteries, such as large UPS systems, electric bicycles, and portable power stations.


When combined with a dedicated BMS, this structure is well-suited for scenarios like electric cars, solar system backup power, and large data centers.


For data center BMS design, electronic components need high power efficiency and adaptability to high-temperature environments due to the continuous, stable operation required by data centers, possibly in high-temperature environments. The BMS must provide precise, consistent data amidst significant noise, continuously evaluating states to take necessary actions.


Eaton provides various DC-DC converters, non-isolated output current ranging from 1 A to 12 A, with multiple input and output voltages, while isolated ones offer isolation voltages of up to 4 kV. Bussmann series fuses can work in high-temperature environments; for instance, PPTC resettable fuses can operate at up to +125°C, having low resistance for higher energy efficiency, and SMD fuses have a rated current of up to 100 A, providing high voltage options of up to 350 Vac/600 Vdc.


To prevent communication and power signals from noise interference, Eaton also offers various components including shielded, semi-shielded, and non-shielded power inductors, ferrite suppression and coupled large current inductors, transformers, and components for RF or EMC filtering.



Magnetic Components


EPM DC-DC Converters

Eaton EPM DC-DC Converters.jpg


Compact, through-hole SIP and DOSA SMT packages


Isolated/non-isolated DC-DC converters, rated power 1–60 W


Non-isolated in a single output configuration, equipped with short-circuit protection and programmability


Isolated in single or dual output configurations; wide input voltage range, low power consumption



WCL Wound Chip Inductors

 Eaton WCL Wound Chip Inductors.jpg

Utilizes a ceramic core winding structure


High inductance Q values and high current handling capacity


High tolerance inductors


Applicable for antennas, Bluetooth/Wi-Fi devices, power amplifier circuits, and RF matching applications



ACE Common Mode Chokes

 ACE Common Mode Chokes.jpg

Offers excellent filtering and low parasitic capacitance to reduce noise intrusion on CAN and Ethernet automotive connection modules


Robust structure



Overcurrent Protection

1245 High Current Fuses

 Eaton Bussmann1245 High Current Fuses.jpg

Fast-acting brick-style fuses


Compact design saving space


Up to 100 A high current-carrying capability


Provides reliable overcurrent protection in high-power density applications



CC06H SMD Fuses

 Eaton Bussmann CC06H SMD Fuses.jpg

High surge capability, fast-acting performance


1.6 x 0.8 mm surface mount package, 0603 (1608 metric) compact design for space-saving


Standard terminal design, easy to solder



Bussmann Series SCF Self-Resetting Fuses

 Bussmann Series SCF Self-Resetting Fuses.jpg

Rated current range from 12 A to 45 A


Offers both flow and overcharge protection


Integrated thermal elements for trigger operation



Overvoltage Protection


TVS Transient Voltage Suppression Diode-ESD Suppressor

 TVS Transient Voltage Suppression Diode-ESD Suppressor.jpg

Discrete and multi-layer packaging


Compact package sizes down to DFN 0603 and 0201 EIA


Ultra-low capacitance as low as 0.15 pF


Uni- and bi-directional protection


Array configurations provided, suitable for common I/O interfaces



TVS Transient Voltage Suppression Diodes


Fast response time


Low clamping voltage, high peak current capability


Can provide loads rated to meet ISO 16750 5a and 5b





Metal shunt resistor

 Metal shunt resistor.jpg

Compact, thin products, 2512 (6432 metric) to 5930 (15076 metric) sizes


Rated power up to 15 W


Resistance as low as 0.1 mΩ


Inductance less than 1 µh



NTC Thermistors

 NTC Thermistors.jpg

Available in epoxy and glass coating options


Epoxy-coated thermistors are cost-effective, meeting various temperature sensing needs in electronic applications


Glass-coated thermistors are stable, reliable, with a quick thermal response, suitable for temperature measurements in extreme temperatures (>150°C), corrosive, or harsh environments





XV Supercapacitors

 Eaton XV Supercapacitors.jpg

High power, low ESR


Capacitance range from 300 F to 600 F


Wide operating temperature range -40°C to +85°C

New industry Technology regarding to Bussmann fuse, ABB breakers, Amphenol connectors, HPS transformers, etc. 

TAG:   Eaton BMS Battery Management System Design